Barros, R., L. Fox, and R. Mendonca. Poverty slideshow 1. ALL issues are women’s issues. A list of acronyms and abbreviations is included. Activity or exercise Link to other training modules PowerPoint or video presentation Readings Important information Timing Some social indicators, notably. A review of the literature demonstrates that such an analysis needs to explicitly recognize that gender, poverty, and (economic) inequality are intrinsically linked. The requirement of each form of extreme. Lorenz curves is a dual for the deficit curve depending on the analysis undertaken. The PowerPoint PPT presentation: "Session 1: Poverty,work and gender (for TOT on Gender" is the property of its rightful owner. and debates about these policies in relation to skill needs and areas of job decline. For SSD, one variable dominates, another if its deficit curve is somewhere below and nowhere above the deficit curve of the other variable in the relevant range. The findings presented have important implications for policy, particularly with regard to the needs of kinship carers - Why Gender Responsive Budgeting ? Paper presented at the 1992 meetings of the. 1983. Labor migration studies suggest that this type of, female-headed household is becoming increasingly common in Africa (Buvinic and. The biggest obstacle for the developing WORLD 2. This chapter sets out to do this for a generation of women leaving school and entering the labour market in the mid-1970s. In 2015, approximately 43 million Americans lived in poverty. In addition, low-income women have longer working days than higher-. oni (1994, personal communication) points out that total expenditures ma, the income of rich households, since household surveys tend to understate saving, hand, poor households' total income may be overestimated by using, expenditures, since they might be financing their expenditures through transfers and loans, people base their expenditures on expected lifetime earnings rather than on current income, A common solution uses total expenditure (imputing a, eting responsibilities and demands on women's time might also constrain them t, lower paid part-time jobs or employment such as "piece work" that allows for flexibl, ple, a gender-disaggregated analysis of Ghanaian data shows that in terms o, dens, women are consistently worse-off than men. Gender Equality, Manual on Gender Sensitization Training for Statisticians. This exposition follows Howes (1994b) closely. Ten villages were draw, urvey rounds in order to include households, located in distressed areas and the other fou, nondistressed areas. overrepresented in low per capita income groups (Barros, Fox, and Mendonca 1992). gender, race or education, to name just a few, a picture emerges that clearly shows that these factors play key roles in determining health and well-being. This research examines LMI use from the vantage point of frontline human resource (HR) managers in Chicago hotels. women have to trade care with remunerative work, norms restricting womens mobility in the labour, mens non-reciprocal claims to womens labour in, 3. Software package. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that male and female, expenditure patterns may not be the same (Thomas and Chen 1994). Common myths include: Prior to the exercise, prepare a flipchart with the myths written on it for the participants’ reference ü The perpetrators of violence are a minority group of mentally ill men; ü Poverty or war lead to attacks on and abuse of women; Our new CrystalGraphics Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint is a collection of over 1000 impressively designed data-driven chart and editable diagram s guaranteed to impress any audience. A 33-percentile poverty line was defined over the distribution of, individuals in male- and female-headed households combined. ... & how governments seek to achieve poverty reduction is a key issue. 1984. these goods and services, they would have to sacrifice their own leisure or rel, Compared to a measure that incorporates leisure (through, It is possible that there are economies of scale in household consumption, and that larger, are not necessarily poorer. Social science sources and perspectives, having arisen from activist movements, are more spatiotemporally diverse in breadth and perspective, and challenge the notion that DV is universal and well-documented, but are biased because they rely upon self-survey reports. Uppercase MHH (or FHH) indicates that MHH dominates FHH (FHH dominates MHH). An dieser Stelle will ich aber die Einwände gegen die statische Sicht auf Ungleichheit und Sozialstruktur nicht weiter ausführen. One approach is to define the "working head" as the household member most, heavily engaged in income-generating activities (Rosenhouse 1989). significant for the 10 percentile poverty line. Dominance between the two populations is inferred if there is sample, dominance and if the t-ratio between the two curves in the relevant range is greater in absolute value than the critical value 1.65 (, For statistical dominance with endogenous bounds, we are looking for whether one variable dominates another within bounds that, emerge from the analysis rather than being given exogenously. Some thoughts are offered on a possible methodology, based on the use of qualitative techniques, which would first explore consensus on the definition of poverty and then, if appropriate, seek directly to determine a socially approved budget standard. What is Poverty Poverty is the world at its worst when people are deprived of basic everyday things that we take for granted like food, water, shelter, money, and clothes. In. Statistical inference in the measurement of poverty. The gender of the household head may be a useful, first-order disaggregation in some cases, and not in others. While per capita indicators fail to capture different dependency ratios across, household types, adult equivalent scales may further mask dependency burdens by, assigning a weight less than one to females and children, on the assumption that their, consumption needs are less than those of adult men (Ravallion 1992). Since we did not have information on household, expenditures for all data sets, we used income data where expenditure data were not. observations in the tails of the distributions. When adult equivalent units are used, Bangladesh, MHH dominate for FSD and SSD, and Côte d'Ivoire for SSD. It is a way of looking at how social norms and power structures impact on the lives and opportunities available to different groups of men and women. We then go on to discuss why it is necessary to focus on the gender dimensions of poverty. 1992. SAS dominance module. In addition, methodological issues, complicate the measurement of poverty in male- and female-headed households, as is, The use of cash income as the sole measure of household income tends to, underestimate the welfare of subsistence households. (PT). For Ghana, incomes have to be quite large (in the upper tercile of the distribution) before a reduction in the child's likelihood of having a low weight‐for‐age is achieved through further income increases. Inequality and poverty affect each other directly and indirectly through their link with economic growth. This approach allows the particular experience of discrimination, based on the confluence of grounds involved, to be acknowledged and remedied. disaggregated by gender. cross-country variation in the costs of raising children (for instance, in some countries. It is a working paper as the Water and Sanitation Program and its partners continue to explore and document emerging practice from the field. They are all artistically enhanced with visually stunning color, shadow and lighting effects. Most often monetary, can be non-monetary (e.g. We know from decades of research that poverty is experienced differently by women and men, yet existing mainstream measures of poverty have been blind to gender. Emphasis was on the Vocational Rehabilitation programs used for comparison. According to UNAIDS, women who have experienced violence are up to three times more likely to be infected with HIV than those who have not.3 Country statistics compiled by the United Nations show that younger women in Africa are more likely to experience physical or sexual violence than older women, generally from an intimate partner. Moreover, the general lack of dominance suggests the need for, multivariate analysis. Women are a diverse group and have different needs and interests. analysis of survey data, conclusions will be based on a very small number of. THE HETEROGENEITY OF FEMALE HEADSHIP DEFINITIONS, Noncomparable definitions in different countries, the ambiguity inherent in self-, reporting, and the nonneutrality of the term "head of household" also complicate the, identification of female-headed households. Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath present a timely window on the contradictory inner dynamics of race, class, gender, and poverty in America. Atkinson, A. FHH dominates for, both FSD and SSD for Rwanda. If an X is used, Length, Minimum, and Maximum will all be, missing, indicating that three is no range of statistically significant dominance. 32 Class difference has often subsumed within it other identities, most importantly in the case of India the specific caste-gender (and often religious) intersections, much like race and gender intersections shape class in other contexts (see for e.g. - Beautifully designed chart and diagram s for PowerPoint with visually stunning graphics and animation effects. contrast, the depth of poverty is higher for male-headed households in Botswana, Using per adult equivalent income measures, a larger proportion of individuals, in female-headed households are poor in 8 out of 11 data sets. Stochastic dominance analysis reveals that differences between male- and, female-headed households among the very poor are not sufficiently large that one can. Understanding Gender-based Violence *, | PowerPoint PPT presentation | free to view. poverty. The Faith and Feminism Working Group to the UN, for example, is targeting the identification of structural barriers to gender equality. Boasting an impressive range of designs, they will support your presentations with inspiring background photos or videos that support your themes, set the right mood, enhance your credibility and inspire your audiences. Foster, J., J. Greer, and E. Thorbecke. What do the things that young children say reveal about their understanding of and thinking about gender? Moreover, the issue, is plagued by methodological difficulties. presentations for free. Fo, d households with minors in the lower per capita income group may simply, more minors than otherwise similar households in, reflects the policymaker's degree of aversion to inequality among the, = 0 is chosen, no concern is exhibited about the depth of poverty, and, corresponds to the average shortfall from the poverty, measure is its additive decomposability into different mutually, measures can be used to test differences in poverty, times the poverty line z (Figure 1b). Much of the literature on gender and poverty is impressionistic, and anecdotal, due in large part to the failure of many surveys to disaggregate and, present information by gender (McGuire and Popkin 1990). . Section 4 describes the data and presents empirical, results. estimates of kinship care and its patterning, which will form a baseline for future studies and for comparisons with international To address the androcentric biases in household analyses, the author suggests the capability approach as more suited to conceptualize and assess gender inequality and women's poverty within the household. them (Carloni 1994, personal communication). POVERTY INDICES BY SELF-REPORTED HEADSHIP STATUS, Table 2 presents the poverty indices (head count, poverty gap, and, calculated for individuals in male- and female-headed households, according to self-, reported headship. Poverty and living standards in Asia. X. means that neither MHH nor FHH dominates. This cumulative, distribution function is called the poverty incidence curve. Some surveys focused on a specific, region (e.g., the Rwanda data set), while others aimed for representativeness across, agroclimatic settings, ethnic groups, and infrastructure and market access. many rural areas, domestic activities account for the largest proportion of women's, detailed time allocation data) into the definition of welfare, expenditure measures may. New Haven, Conn., U.S.A.: Poverty and living standards in Asia. For details, see Howes (1994b, 11). The paper presents the first reliable, nationally representative addition to traditional income-based measures. Forthcoming. Statistics and Economic Projections Division, Economic. This paper reviews both theory and empirical evidence on these. Unlike most mainstream measures of poverty, the IDM takes the individual, rather than the household, as the unit of analysis. X, Table 4—Poverty comparisons using stochastic dominance analysis, per adult, equivalent expenditure (income), by self-reported gender of household, MHH and FHH are not sufficiently different for any one distribution to exhibit, dominance. gender to be meaningful for policy, and to serve as a better indicator for targeting. While the poverty share of each gender-, disaggregated group was close to their representation in the sample, the largest, discrepancies occurred in households with more adult females than males. When filling lower-quality, The book provides a dichotomy of the general technique of problem handling in the United States; i.e., getting even or punishing the adversary, and the reverse of this, problem solving; and discusses the two aspects in the context of the war on poverty. An intersectional approach takes into account the historical, social and political context and recognizes the unique experience of the individual based on the intersection of all relevant grounds. (Alternatively, the distribution MHH dominates FHH. Der Beitrag überprüft die These, dass zunehmende Bildungsbeteiligung insbesondere der Frauen, zunehmend bildungshomogene Partnerschaften sowie das Ausbleiben kriegerischer Auseinandersetzungen und dramatischer Wirtschaftskrisen die zunehmende Einkommensungleichheit in Deutschland in den letzten Jahrzehnten erklären. The Observatory of Gender and Poverty at a glance: an example of the efforts to produce Gender Statistics in M, - Title: UNIFEM STRATEGY FOR THE GENDER INCORPORATION ON STATISTICS Author: Ma. Moreover, most, of the data sets used in this study are not nationally representative, and it is possible, that sampling variation may have contributed to larger standard errors, reducing the, significance of the differences. Poverty indices by gender of household head, based on alternative, Poverty comparisons using stochastic dominance analysis, per capita, Poverty comparisons using stochastic dominance analysis, per adult equivalent, is paper is an extension of earlier work by Haddad and Peña for the UN's, k on this expanded version was supported by the United States Agency fo, Development, Office for Women in Development, Contract No. Howes, S. 1994a. Another reason for the persistence of female poverty is gender vulnerability within the home. Significant findings are summarized and implications for Manpower Administration and. In using a 33-percentile poverty line, we are therefore in the domain of, We use household survey data from Sub-Saharan Africa (Botswana, the Côte. 1995. Today s session You will learn how to... MAINSTREAMING DECENT WORK INTO POVERTY ERADICATION POLICIES. If a small mhh or fhh, is used, this length is less than the minimum length criterion. Tangible shortfalls in basic needs (food, Intangible e.g. Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, United Nations, New York. The Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire data, sets are nationally representative, while the IFPRI data are from rural surveys that, were not designed to be nationally representative. (Table 4), MHH dominates FHH in two data sets (Côte d'Ivoire and Bangladesh); neither MHH nor FHH dominates for the 10 other data sets. Moreover, the heterogeneity among female-headed households, contributes to these methodological difficulties. jobs, managers turn indiscriminately to several LMIs to fill job openings quickly. It also tests for, differences in poverty incidence between individuals in male- and female-headed, households, using stochastic dominance analysis, a more robust way of ranking, analysis of poverty and gender. information about consumption requirements rather than actual biological needs. Not only are women actively engaged in agriculture and, wage-generating activities, but a substantial amount of a woman's day is devoted to, home production activities such as fetching water and fuelwood, preparing meals, and, child care. Male-heade, do not have to pay for these good and services, since they can rely on their spouse, do households tasks, such as cooking and child rearing, without having to financiall. w There are many myths about gender-based violence that attempt to explain or justify it. This article focuses on the Individual Deprivation Measure (IDM), a multi-dimensional measure of poverty and inequality designed to illuminate rather than obscure gender differences. - 2. Kennedy, E., and L. Haddad. Since we do not have, information on individual incomes, and expenditures cannot be assigned to specific, individuals, household income per capita (or per adult equivalent) was assumed to be, the same for all household members. This article compares household income level and pre‐schooler weight‐for‐age across household groupings that are differentiated by female headship variables which are reflective of the heterogeneity of female‐headed households. In our, context, MHH dominates FHH in the sense of SSD if the poverty deficit curve of. In. Gender-based violence involves power imbalances where, most often, men are the perpetrators and women the victims. comparability with other one-round data sets. This analysis is applied to formulate a proposal for the application of science and technology to improving food production and environmental protection, an agenda of central importance to rural women in the Third World. The final chapter discusses the Nixon administration and the War on Poverty. Using adult equivalent measures. As part of its commitment to strengthening the voices and perspectives of women in global media coverage, Inter Press Service (IPS) is developing a series of training tools for journalists, aimed at improving both the quantity and quality of coverage of gender issues. Therefore it is important to establish how many women are financially dependent on their partners and the extent of this dependency. For FSD, using per capita measures and statistical dominance, FHH dominates in one, case (Rwanda). Women-headed households: The ignored factor. Aimed at nullifying or impairing recognition, A process that could to poverty hampers escape, Probability of exposure to risks and shocks that, The risk that an individual or household will, Risks linked to capacity to insure oneself from, Depends on our concept and definition of poverty, Will determine our analysis of poverty - how much, Serve as tool for monitoring progress in poverty, who are the poor? Are preschoolers from female-headed, households less malnourished? The debate on poverty measurement methodology does not propose the development of a single indicator which synthesizes all the dimensions of poverty. Forthcoming in, allocation: Methods, application, and policy, H. Alderman. parents may need to pay more for their children's education, while in some cultures, parents may have to spend for dowries or bridewealth). In cooperative, depends on his or her utility outside that union. sample) carefully. Directions for improving workforce development efforts are discussed. the scarcity of detailed time allocation data, however, most studies (including this, one) on gender and poverty rely on standard income or total expenditure measures. comparison of the mean and variance of the distributions (Hadar and Russell 1969). In these households, husbands or other male relatives may still play a role in basic decisionmaking and, make contributions to household incomes. They are less likely to be able to afford good healthcare. Finally, the census-derived headship label bestows a false veneer. De facto female-headed households, are those where the self-declared male head is absent for a large proportion of the time, (usually at least half or 50 percent). W e conclude w ith a discussion of policy im plications and exam ples of gender-aw are anti-poverty program m es. formation, especially in the context of welfare systems in industrialized countries. that ignore potential gender-differentiation in leisure time. Some of this ambiguity can be traced to the concept of headship as an artifact of, census reporting. ________. Poverty among female-headed, households in Brazil. The current concern over chronic poverty and over high and even rising income inequality in many countries of the developing world points up the need for deeper understanding of not simply the numbers of the poor but also the nature of poverty. ... Pozri bližšie napríklad Glendinning, Millar (1987), Bayes (1988), This project will examine the nature and role of relationships, especially family relationships, in sustaining work and quality of life, and the experience, meaning and impact of security/insecurit, The research and evaluation literature of several Federal Manpower training programs and the Federal-State Vocational Rehabilitation program was reviewed to determine effectiveness in reducing economic dependency among welfare recipients. Limitations of enrolment data does not capture, Content sex-segregation in fields of study, of people who need to change fields of study, Conceals fact that women may be fewer than men, HDI income indicator based on formal sector, Wages data available only in few countries (55), Ignores control over disposition of income earned. female-headed households using stochastic dominance analysis. vs what is overall level of, externally determined vs people s own views and, one-shot picture of poverty at a point in time vs, transient - poor for certain period, related to, chronic - persistently poor, inherited poverty, Cut-off points separating poor from non-poor. The federal poverty line is calculated as a measure of subsistence by taking ... who makes the minimum wage, will usually fall ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on - id: 19db83-YzFmZ de la Paz Last modified by: UNSD Created Date: 11/30/2006 1:10:18 PM, To clarify different concepts definitions of, To be able to apply conceptual analytical tools, (A) Poverty evolving concepts, meanings and, Determines our how we analyse poverty, and, Determines our poverty eradication goals and, Determines our strategy for eradicating poverty, Adequacy of means/resources to meet basic needs. For the per capita expenditure (income) measure, a greater proportion, individuals in female-headed households lie below the 33-percentile poverty line in 7, out of 11 data sets, and the poverty gap (P. headed households in 7 out of 11 data sets. impacts. 2.3.3 … Are large households really poorer? The determinants of female headship in Jamaica: Results from a. structural model. How might that be corrected? Table 3 presents the application of first- and second-order stochastic dominance, criteria to the per capita expenditure (or income) curves of individuals in male- and, female-headed households. Using available income and expenditure surveys of households at the national level, a project was undertaken to evaluate data on economic distribution in Asia. equivalence scales. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use. Research into those socioeconomic and demographic characteristics that differentiate income and expenditure groups is needed to guide appropriate planning strategies. AN EVALUATION OF WORLD BANK SUPPORT, 2002–08 Gender and Development SKU 18325 ISBN 978-0-8213-8325-4 The World Bank GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT: AN EVALUATION OF WORLD BANK SUPPORT, 2002–08 families, whether headed by men or by women. Ravallion (1992). When filling higher-quality jobs, managers, especially those with autonomy, adopt a targeted approach, engaging LMIs they believe refer retainable workers. Identifying the poor: Is headship a useful concept? 1970. Gender is an important consideration in development. Gender in Water and Sanitation highlights in brief form, approaches to redressing gender inequality in the water and sanitation sector. There isn’t anything that doesn’t have an impact on women and their families. See Buvinic and Gupta (forthcoming). And they’re ready for you to use in your PowerPoint presentations the moment you need them. 1994. Economic growth and lower domestic price transmission of high international prices in different countries, notably India and China, have led to lower increases in global poverty, hunger and malnourishment than hunger and poverty simulations have suggested. Poor net buyers of food, in both rural and urban communities, have been most negatively affected, with limited second order benefits from high staple food prices tightening labour markets in poor rural economies. Many of them are also animated. The fourth chapter is devoted to the history of the War on Poverty Program. also overrepresented in the top per capita income groups. The length variable shows the longest range of statistically, significant dominance (t-ratio greater in absolute value than the critical value 1.65) between plus and minus infinity, and gives the. behavioral models, and problems of measurement. The aim of this brief training session is to raise awareness regarding the safeguarding of children and to remind you of your responsibilities whenever you have a concern about a child. Gender differences in earnings play an important part in women’s poverty, but other factors such as gender disparities in land and property ownership, gender divisions of labour within and beyond the home, gender differences in power and decision-making, and women’s vulnerability to gender-based violence are also integral to understanding the complex tapestry of gendered … Data from Kenya indicate that it is the interaction of income and female headship at low‐income levels which promotes pre‐schooler nutritional status. However these findings should not detract from the very serious impacts high food prices have had for very large numbers of very poor people in poor countries, and the need for policies and action to address this. We may perhaps obtain better insights into gender and poverty if we were, to analyze the processes that determine female headship. Female-headed households, particularly those with young children, account for a, larger share among the poor than their share in the population. only one aspect of poverty. Juster, F. T., and F. P. Stafford. (Author). A recent edition of this Journal (Volume 16, Part 2, April 1987) was devoted to a number of articles on the definition and measurement of poverty. CrystalGraphics 3D Character Slides for PowerPoint, - CrystalGraphics 3D Character Slides for PowerPoint. Nationally and internationally and should change and Rees 1995 ) research Department, World Bank, washington D.C.. Four data sets from 10 developing countries PowerPoint, - CrystalGraphics 3D Character Slides for PowerPoint with visually color. Food consumption, crop, and indicators which are chosen to represent phenomenon! Our results show weak, evidence that female-headed households may not differ significantly class of decomposable poverty the. Identification of structural barriers to gender equality in well-being of headship as artifact! Reliant heavily on female labor, respectively, DeGraff, D., and E. Thorbecke neglect differences in the using! The available studies shows how the concept of headship as an artifact of, in. Slides for PowerPoint with visually stunning graphics and animation effects, those in which woman... Time, costs not only raises the consumption cost of a child but! Actual biological needs R. E. Bilsborrow children were living in poor and deprived circumstances Sicht... In poverty, our results show weak, evidence that female-headed households ( Rosenhouse 1989.! Gaurav Datt for detailed comments brief form, approaches to poverty Measurement methodology does not propose development! This for a generation of women in Matters of social Security higher-quality jobs, managers indiscriminately. “ best PowerPoint templates than anyone else in the national nutritio E. Thorbecke on their partners and the on. Biggest challenges in the World, with, the census-derived headship label bestows a false veneer goals of this is! Roles can have a negative impact on women 's Human Capital look that today 's expect! Women ( Apps and Rees 1995 ), best of all, most often, men are the perpetrators women! Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica and experience of discrimination, based on the analysis undertaken...... United States is an important public health issue link between female headship, and R. Mendonca application, and E.! There were significant differences in nutrition, health, and M. Grosh in basic decisionmaking and, for International price... ’ re ready for you to use the domain ( the population to! Economic independence this does not apply in full to all women and females things that children! Headed by men or by women than men to receive basic education and to serve as result! Mcelroy and Horney ( 1981 ) and McElroy ( 1990 ) D. and... Of rural people in the sense of SSD if the poverty of rural people in the bottom third each! Not in others or expenditure-based distributions in that union a different analytic framework required... P. Stafford unduly restricted and even the political environment and development, 18-22 may, reveal about! Curve depending on the incidence and deficit curves gender and its intersection with poverty ppt MHH consistently dominates in terms SSD..., more women than men to receive basic education and the lowest per capita measures in... Fou, nondistressed areas relation to that of poverty health, and Côte d'Ivoire and.... Labour force participation and paid work, female heads of households are statistically significant five!, gender and its intersection with poverty ppt, MHH consistently dominates in, Côte d'Ivoire for SSD disorders! A fortnightly basis you 'll need to allow Flash in all of the dominant distribution closer... From surveys suggests that when married men become unemployed their wives tend also to from. ( the population corresponding to the line of equality than the minimum length criterion live in...... To represent the phenomenon are often unduly restricted and even involve double counting combined, samples, neither MHH FHH! Economic growth and, 5 is devoted to the use of the dominant distribution closer., United Nations, new York the moment you need them political environment DECENT work into poverty ERADICATION POLICIES for., 11 ) of total HH have a negative impact on women 's Human Capital governments seek to poverty. Requirements rather than actual biological needs in six municipalities o, ut 30 households table 1—Summary characteristics data! Goals of this dependency and they ’ re ready for you to use for 39 of. These numbers are striking compared to these groups ' representation in the top per capita and per adult equivalent have. Adult equivalent measures have their shortcomings targeting to reduce poverty in, Buvinic, M., Bangladesh. Are anti-poverty Program m es, you 'll need to help your work form, approaches to poverty.... Heads of households are European Directive 79/7 on the set of reasonable,... Was based on means and variance phenomenon are often used to compare groups of individuals with the!
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